Stimulating and warming oil. Helpful in a muscle rub especially as one gets older and less mobile. Add to massage oil and use before and after exercise to warm and tone the muscles. Appetite stimulant, aids digestion, and circulation. It has a cooling effect in treating fevers. Vaporise during the winter to treat colds and flu like illnesses. Ideal to put in the bath at the first signs of a cold. Good for investigative work – Helps one stand their ground, good for aggressive sports and endurance. Pepper is one of the most important and oldest of the spices.